Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs)

Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are among the most common contagious diseases and are transmitted through contact of body fluids such as vaginal, anal, or oral fluids containing vaginal discharge or blood. These are serious diseases that require treatment, so early diagnosis is critically important. While some STDs may not pose a risk to the individual in the initial stages, if left untreated, they can lead to severe complications and can be transmitted from an infected pregnant mother to the baby. Additionally, early detection and treatment in the early stages are crucial in preventing the spread of the disease to different individuals. If any suspicious symptoms are noticed, it is essential to consult a doctor without delay.

Risk factors for sexually transmitted diseases include having multiple sexual partners, lack of protection during sexual intercourse, or sharing needle injectors. Symptoms of STDs vary, but common signs include vaginal discharge, burning sensation and frequent urge to urinate during urination, diarrhea, nausea, and excessive sweating. Syphilis, genital herpes, chlamydia, and genital warts are among the commonly seen sexually transmitted diseases.


Syphilis is a highly serious disease, and early treatment is essential to prevent permanent damage and serious complications. Syphilis has four stages. In the initial stage, usually sores in the form of ulcers appear around the genital area, mouth, and lips. Although these sores may heal on their own within approximately 2 to 3 weeks, the disease persists. The second stage is the most contagious period, characterized by fatigue, itching, and white warts. The third stage may not exhibit any symptoms. In the fourth stage, which is the final stage of syphilis, it can cause damage to organs such as the heart and liver, as well as skin tissues. The symptoms in this stage may vary depending on which part of the body syphilis affects. Syphilis can also be transmitted from a pregnant mother to her baby. Syphilis can lead to life-threatening complications. Therefore, diagnosis and treatment in the first two stages are of critical importance. The only way to diagnose syphilis is through testing.

Chlamydia Infections

Chlamydia is a common sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. It can infect both men and women and can cause serious reproductive and other health issues if left untreated. Chlamydia is often asymptomatic, meaning many people infected may not experience symptoms, making regular testing crucial for early detection and treatment.

Chlamydia is a disease caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis, and it spreads through the contact of bodily fluids such as vaginal discharge or blood during vaginal, anal, or oral intercourse. Symptoms of chlamydia may include a burning sensation during urination, frequent urination, the formation of sores in the genital area, and vaginal discharge. If left untreated, it can lead to serious complications such as infertility. When diagnosed early, it can be treated with various medications. In cases where chlamydia is transmitted through anal intercourse or the infection spreads, it can also affect the rectum, causing symptoms like rectal pain, bleeding, and discharge. Chlamydia symptoms typically appear 7 to 21 days after sexual contact. The only way to prevent chlamydia is to practice safe sex.

Genital Warts (Condyloma Acuminata)

Genital warts are a symptom of HPV infection and can occur in both men and women. Risk factors for HPV include having multiple sexual partners, early initiation of sexual activity, and lack of protection during intercourse. Genital warts are often transmitted through oral, anal, or vaginal contact. The typical sign of genital warts is flat, wart-like protrusions on the skin. Depending on the location, women may experience bleeding or itching during sexual intercourse and pregnancy. In some cases, HPV can remain dormant in the body for many years, and the immune system of many individuals can render HPV inactive. Medical cream therapy, cryotherapy, or cautery treatment may be used in the treatment of genital warts. Surgical methods may be necessary for larger warts.

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