Vascular Dilation and Superficial Varicose Vein Treatment

Dilation of blood vessels generally refers to the expansion of blood vessels or the visibility of enlarged veins. This condition can occur in various parts of the body, especially in the legs or feet. Superficial varicose veins are a type of enlarged veins that are typically blue, purple, or red and appear under the skin. While this condition often arises as an aesthetic concern, in some cases, individuals may experience pain, itching, or discomfort.


What are Varicose Veins?

If you experience pain and heaviness in your body, have spider veins on your legs, notice swelling and bruises on your ankles, have redness, itching, and dryness on your skin, or experience prolonged bleeding under the skin, be sure not to neglect seeking advice from a cardiovascular specialist!


Varicose veins are defined as the dilation, elongation, and twisting of leg veins. They are observed in 10-20% of individuals in Western societies, with the likelihood increasing with age. Varicose veins are seen in one out of every two individuals over the age of 50.


How many types of varicose veins are there?

There are four types of varicose veins:

  • Spider Veins


Also known as telangiectasia, these veins are superficially located on the skin. They are 1 mm or less in diameter and cannot be felt by touch. They are usually red in color, forming regional star-shaped or spider-web-like linear structures that can cover the entire leg.

  • Reticular Varicose Veins

Slightly swollen veins under the skin, less than 4 mm in diameter, appearing blue and difficult to feel by touch.

  • Large Vein Varicosities (Saphenous Vein Varicosities)


Easily noticeable varicose veins that form large, extended curves along the course of major and minor saphenous veins. These veins are larger than 3 mm in diameter. As they run beneath the skin, they generally do not change the skin’s color but exhibit a greenish reflection of the vein’s natural color. They protrude from the skin and become more prominent when standing, disappearing when lying down with the legs raised.

  • Varicose Veins in Deep Large Vessels


These veins are situated in the deeper layers of the leg. They are not visible externally but can cause edema and circulatory problems in the legs.


Who Gets Varicose Veins?

Varicose veins are more commonly observed in women than in men. They are more frequent in individuals with a family history of varicose veins. Additionally, obesity, aging, pregnancy, menopause, prolonged standing, as well as blockages in deep veins and valve insufficiencies in these veins can lead to their development.


What Are the Causes of Varicose Veins?

The exact cause of varicose veins is not fully understood. The primary issue is the dilation of veins and backflow of blood due to structural abnormalities in the vein wall and valve dysfunction. This backflow makes it difficult for blood to return to the heart, increasing the pressure inside the veins. As the pressure increases, the veins widen, creating a continuous loop.


There are also rarer causes of varicose veins. When individuals have blockages in deep veins, which normally carry 10% of leg blood flow, the superficial veins take on the entire return of deoxygenated blood from the leg. Consequently, these veins widen and appear as varicose veins.


Patient Complaints

  • Pain, fatigue, and heaviness in the legs, especially in the evenings and after exertion
  • Development of spider veins on the legs
  • Swelling in the ankles
  • Formation of bruises on the ankles
  • Redness, itching, and dryness on the skin, known as stasis dermatitis or venous eczema
  • Prolonged bleeding under the skin even with minor trauma
  • Hardening of the subcutaneous fat layer leading to depression in the skin above the ankle in some individuals
  • Occasional accompanying symptoms such as restless leg syndrome


Superficial varicose vein treatment

Superficial varicose vein treatment can be performed through various methods, including:


  • Sclerotherapy: In this method, a substance is injected into the vein using a fine needle. This substance causes the vein walls to stick together and close off. This reduces the appearance of varicose veins.
  • Laser or IPL Treatment: Intense light sources are used to treat varicose veins. The impact of the light damages the vein walls, causing them to fade over time.
  • Radiofrequency or Laser Ablation: In this procedure, a device is inserted into the affected vein, and high heat or laser energy is used to damage the vein wall. This leads to the disappearance of the vein.
  • Surgical Interventions: In some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary for large and severe varicose veins. This typically involves removing or closing off the vein.


While these treatments generally aim to address aesthetic concerns, in some cases, varicose veins may cause pain or other symptoms necessitating medical intervention. The choice of treatment can vary depending on factors such as the size, location, and severity of the varicose veins. It’s important to consult a doctor before evaluating treatment options.

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